Second Opinion column by Cliff Slater
April 8, 2002
Greater expectations in education
We should raise our sights on what we expect from our brightest students, instead of creating a homogenized education for everyone.
To understand how low our expectations for education have become, it is well to get a 200-year perspective on it.
At the time of the Revolution, the U.S. had a population of 2.5 million. Its political leaders were George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, George Mason and, in addition, the 56 signers of the Declaration of Independence including Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and Dr. Benjamin Rush. What an array of intellects that could give us not only the Declaration but also our Constitution and the Federalist Papers.
But, hold on. Hawaii today has a population of about half what the whole United States had back then. Simple math tells us that we should have at least half that many political leaders of such stature and learning. Am I alone in thinking that we do not?
However, in those days, the elite had high expectations of students. Two hundred years ago, Thomas Jefferson wrote to his 15 year-old ward and nephew laying out his expectations for the boy’s education:
"... I advise you to begin a course of ancient history, reading every thing in the original and not in translations… reading the following … Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophontis Hellenica, Xenophontis Anabasis, Arrian, Quintus Curtius, Diodorus Siculus, Justin. This shall form the first stage of your historical reading … The next, will be of Roman history (Livy, Sullust, Caesar, Cicero's epistles, Suetonius, Tacitus, Gibbon.) From that, we will come down to modern history.
In Greek and Latin poetry, you have read or will read at school, Virgil, Terence , Horace, Anacreon, Theocritus, Homer, Euripides, Sophocles.
Read also Milton's Paradise Lost, Shakespeare, Ossian, Pope's and Swift's works, in order to form your style in your own language.
In morality, read Epictetus, Xenophontis Memorabilia, Plato's Socratic dialogues, Cicero's philosophies, Antoninus, and Seneca.
... You are now, I expect, learning French. You must push this; because the books which will be put into your hands when you advance into Mathematics, Natural philosophy, Natural history, &c. will be mostly French, these sciences being better treated by the French than the English writers. Our future connection with Spain renders that the most necessary of the modern languages, after the French.” (1)
The historical record in the English-speaking world is quite clear: We have gradually lowered our expectations for what we expect of our brightest and most diligent students while raising them for the least diligent ones. The net result has been an education that focuses on a rather homogenized egalitarian education for all. Today, our children no longer have to qualify to graduate from high school; they merely have to show up a reasonable amount of time.
But high expectations for students who want to learn are in place at a few schools in the U.S. Chicago inner-city students at the Marva Collins school read Sophocles, Homer, Plato, Chaucer, Tolstoy, and Dostoevski. Unsurprisingly, their lowest scores in the 7th and 8th grades are equivalent to average high school junior levels. One remembers the high expectations of Jaime Escalante, the calculus teacher whose success with inner-city kids is legendary.
What a tragedy that our sincere concern for the least fortunate among us results in such a lessening of competence at the top.
Cliff Slater is a regular columnist whose footnoted columns are at www.lava.net/cslater
(1) Peterson, Merrill D. ed. The Portable Thomas Jefferson. Penguin Books. 1975. pp. 380-3.
Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Peter Carr
Paris, August 19, 1785
I received, by Mr. Mazzei, your letter of April the 20th.
I am much mortified to hear that you have lost so much time; and that when you arrived in Williamsburg, you were not at all advanced from what you were when you left Monticello. Time now begins to be precious to you. Every day you lose, will retard a day your entrance on that public stage whereon you may begin to be useful to yourself. However, the way to repair the loss is to improve the future time. I trust, that with your dispositions, even the acquisition of science is a pleasing employment. I can assure you, that the possession of it is, what (next to an honest heart) will above all things render you dear to your friends, and give you fame and promotion in your own country. When your mind shall be well improved with science, nothing will be necessary to place you in the highest points of view, but to pursue the interests of your country, the interests of your friends, and your own interests also, with the purest integrity, the most chaste honor. The defect of these virtues can never be made up by all the other acquirements of body and mind. Make these then your first object. Give up money, give up fame, give up science, give the earth itself and all it contains, rather than do an immoral act. And never suppose, that in any possible situation, or under any circumstances, it is best for you to do a dishonorable thing, however slightly so it may appear to you. Whenever you are to do a thing, though it can never be known but to yourself, ask yourself how you would act were all the world looking at you, and act accordingly. Encourage all your virtuous dispositions, and exercise them whenever an opportunity arises; being assured that they will gain strength by exercise, as a limb of the body does, and that exercise will make them habitual. From the practice of the purest virtue, you may be assured you will derive the most sublime comforts in every moment of life, and in the moment of death. If ever you find yourself environed with difficulties and perplexing circumstances, out of which you are at a loss how to extricate yourself, do what is right, and be assured that that will extricate you the best out of the worst situations. Though you cannot see, when you take one step, what will be the next, yet follow truth, justice, and plain dealing, and never fear their leading you out of the labyrinth, in the easiest manner possible. The knot which you thought a Gordian one, will untie itself before you. Nothing is so mistaken as the supposition, that a person is to extricate himself from a difficulty, by intrigue, by chicanery, by dissimulation, by trimming, by an untruth, by an injustice. This increases the difficulties ten fold; and those who pursue these methods, get themselves so involved at length, that they can turn no way but their infamy becomes more exposed. It is of great importance to set a resolution, not to be shaken, never to tell an untruth. There is no vice so mean, so pitiful, so contemptible; and he who permits himself to tell a lie once, finds it much easier to do it a second and third time, till at length it becomes habitual; he tells lies without attending to it, and truths without the world's believing him. This falsehood of the tongue leads to that of the heart, and in time depraves all its good dispositions. An honest heart being the first blessing, a knowing head is the second. It is time for you now to begin to be choice in your reading; to begin to pursue a regular course in it; and not to suffer yourself to be turned to the right or left by reading any thing out of that course. I have long ago digested a plan for you, suited to the circumstances in which you will be placed. This I will detail to you, from time to time, as you advance. For the present, I advise you to begin a course of antient history, reading every thing in the original and not in translations. First read Goldsmith's history of Greece. This will give you a digested view of that field. Then take up antient history in the detail, reading the following books, in the following order: Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophontis Hellenica, Xenophontis Anabasis, Arrian, Quintus Curtius, Diodorus Siculus, Justin. This shall form the first stage of your historical reading, and is all I need mention to you now. The next, will be of Roman history (*). From that, we will come down to modern history. In Greek and Latin poetry, you have read or will read at school, Virgil, Terence, Horace, Anacreon, Theocritus, Homer, Euripides, Sophocles. Read also Milton's Paradise Lost, Shakspeare, Ossian, Pope's and Swift's works, in order to form your style in your own language. In morality, read Epictetus, Xenophontis Memorabilia, Plato's Socratic dialogues, Cicero's philosophies, Antoninus, and Seneca. In order to assure a certain progress in this reading, consider what hours you have free from the school and the exercises of the school. Give about two of them, every day, to exercise; for health must not be sacrificed to learning. A strong body makes the mind strong. As to the species of exercise, I advise the gun. While this gives a moderate exercise to the body, it gives boldness, enterprise, and independence to the mind. Games played with the ball, and others of that nature, are too violent for the body, and stamp no character on the mind. Let your gun therefore be the constant companion of your walks. Never think of taking a book with you. The object of walking is to relax the mind. You should therefore not permit yourself even to think while you walk; but divert your attention by the objects surrounding you. Walking is the best possible exercise. Habituate yourself to walk very far. The Europeans value themselves on having subdued the horse to the uses of man; but I doubt whether we have not lost more than we have gained, by the use of this animal. No one has occasioned so much, the degeneracy of the human body. An Indian goes on foot nearly as far in a day, for a long journey, as an enfeebled white does on his horse; and he will tire the best horses. There is no habit you will value so much as that of walking far without fatigue. I would advise you to take your exercise in the afternoon: not because it is the best time for exercise, for certainly it is not; but because it is the best time to spare from your studies; and habit will soon reconcile it to health, and render it nearly as useful as if you gave to that the more precious hours of the day. A little walk of half an hour, in the morning, when you first rise, is advisable also. It shakes off sleep, and produces other good effects in the animal economy. Rise at a fixed and an early hour, and go to bed at a fixed and early hour also. Sitting up late at night is injurious to the health, and not useful to the mind. Having ascribed proper hours to exercise, divide what remain, (I mean of your vacant hours) into three portions. Give the principal to History, the other two, which should be shorter, to Philosophy and Poetry. Write to me once every month or two, and let me know the progress you make. Tell me in what manner you employ every hour in the day. The plan I have proposed for you is adapted to your present situation only. When that is changed, I shall propose a corresponding change of plan. I have ordered the following books to be sent to you from London, to the care of Mr. Madison. Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon's Hellenics, Anabasis and Memorabilia, Cicero's works, Baretti's Spanish and English Dictionary, Martin's Philosophical Grammar, and Martin's Philosophia Britannica. I will send you the following from hence. Bezout's Mathematics, De la Lande's Astronomy, Muschenbrock's Physics, Quintus Curtius, Justin, a Spanish Grammar, and some Spanish books. You will observe that Martin, Bezout, De la Lande, and Muschenbrock are not in the preceding plan. They are not to be opened till you go to the University. You are now, I expect, learning French. You must push this; because the books which will be put into your hands when you advance into Mathematics, Natural philosophy, Natural history, &c. will be mostly French, these sciences being better treated by the French than the English writers. Our future connection with Spain renders that the most necessary of the modern languages, after the French. When you become a public man, you may have occasion for it, and the circumstance of your possessing that language, may give you a preference over other candidates. I have nothing further to add for the present, but husband well your time, cherish your instructors, strive to make every body your friend; and be assured that nothing will be so pleasing, as your success, to, Dear Peter,
(*) Livy, Sullust, Caesar, Cicero's epistles, Suetonius, Tacitus, Gibbon.
Also: Press release (December 22, 1999) from University of Arkansas:
FAYETTEVILLE, Ark. __Marva Collins, one of the nation's most celebrated and revered African-American educators, will address more than 350 Arkansas educators, administrators and parents at the annual mid-year celebration of the University of Arkansas' "Great Expectations" program Jan. 7 and 8, 2000, at the Riverside Hilton in North Little Rock.
Collins, who founded Westside Preparatory School in Chicago in 1975, has gained international recognition for her no-frills classroom style in which all students–no matter their apparent skill level, background or upbringing–are expected to adhere to the highest academic standards in an environment of continuous praise, affection and mutual respect. Schools following her methodology incorporate phonics, Latin, classical literature and math, among many other subjects often thought too esoteric for inner-city and disadvantaged children. Some educators, like Charles Murray, author of "The Bell Curve," say that the Collins method is producing results "too good to be true." But a "60 Minutes" documentary about Collins and her method, refuted Murray's accusation. Proponents of the Collins method say that by building confidence in children by celebrating their success and giving them an unending supply of affection and unconditional love and respect, teachers are able to make a positive measurable impact on a child's future.
Collins has achieved an international reputation for her innovations in Chicago's inner-city educational system and has been featured in hundreds of newspapers, magazines and on television programs across the country and around the world. She is also featured in Brian Lanker's "I Dream a World; Portraits of Black Women Who Changed America." Originally from Alabama, Collins is in constant demand as a lecturer and presenter.
"We're absolutely delighted that Ms. Collins will be able to join us for this important celebration," said Charles Stegman, dean of the College of Education and Health Professions. "Her experience, her history, her presence will be an inspiration to our Great Expectations teachers, parents and administrators. We owe a great deal to those teachers who have carried Arkansas' classrooms a long, long way–keeping them inspired is part of our mission."
Great Expectations of Arkansas, an educational program funded by the Walton Family Foundation, is a "high expectations" philosophical approach to teaching that has been successfully instituted in nearly 60 Arkansas school districts over its five years of existence.
"Great Expectations is a model educational program and philosophy that we're proud to be celebrating," said Marie Parker, director of the program. "Having Marva to celebrate alongside makes this a banner year for us–she's an inspiration to educators everywhere, but especially in Arkansas."